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Contributions to Drilling, Completion and Workover ... Horizontal drilling Casing drilling ERD. 7 2....

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  • 1

    Contributions to Drilling, Completion

    and Workover Technology

    Beiträge zur Bohr-, Komplettierungs- und Aufarbeitungstechnik

    HABILITATIONSSCHRIFT

    zur Erlangung der Lehrbefugnis

    für das Fachgebiet Drilling, Completion and Workover

    vorgelegt von Dr. Dr.-Ing. Catalin Teodoriu aus PLOIESTI, Rumänien

    genehmigt von der

    Fakultät für Energie- und Wirtschaftswissenschaften

    der Technischen Universität Clausthal

    11.06.2011

  • 2

    Für Lavinia

  • 3

    Content

    Preamble 3

    1. Introduction 4

    2. Selected contributions to drilling and production 6

    2.1. Advanced modeling of the stress/strain state in tubular goods 6

    2.2. New developments in deep drilling technology 9

    2.3. Experimental investigation of multiphase flow 10

    2.4. The importance of recovery factor 12

    3. Comments on selected categories of peer-reviewed papers and comparable contributions 14

    References 22

    Appendix 1: List of papers and other publications

    Appendix 2: List of papers grouped by subject

    Appendix 3: List of selected papers for this habilitation (full-length papers are presented)

  • 4

    Preamble

    Publishing is the key in characterizing and defining the academic development of a faculty member. The author’s peer-reviewed and conference papers are listed in Appendix 1. They can be grouped into two primary categories: papers dealing with investigations in the areas of drilling and completions, and papers with a focus on production and workover operations. Each category is then subdivided into the following topics:

    Drilling and completions

    Equipment, processes, special procedures (i.e. horizontal drilling) Critical equipment and components Analysis and modeling of operational procedures, well control methods Drilling and cementing fluids Health, Safety and Environment (HSE) aspects

    (thread compounds, fluid rheology, formation damage) Advanced drilling technology Geothermal technology Advanced teaching methods and tele-teaching

    Production operations and workover • Equipment to improve recovery efficiency, multiphase flow in pipelines • Tubular stress and strain, tubular integrity over field life,

    sealability of tubular components, temperature effects, corrosion issues • Liquid loading in gas wells • Recovery of hydrocarbons • Optimization of geothermal energy recovery

    The full list of papers, organized according to the scheme presented above, is presented in Appendix 2. From the total number of publications listed in Appendix 1 (94 in total, plus 2 pending peer-revision), only those publications listed in Appendix 3 were chosen for the application for habilitation at Clausthal University of Technology.

  • 5

    1. Introduction Drilling and production are at the heart of the petroleum engineering discipline. Together, they cover fundamental hardware and operational aspects of the upstream sector of the Exploration and Production (E&P) business. Several advanced technologies have been developed since the onset of hydrocarbon exploitation in 1859, both in the USA (Titusville, Pennsylvania) and Germany (Wietze, Nieder- sachsen).

    Drilling technology and hydrocarbon production operations have remained key areas in the education and training of petroleum engineers for more than 100 years.

    With a specialization in mechanical and process engineering within petroleum engineering, the author is convinced that there is still a strong need to further improve components and systems in drilling and production operations. Figure 1 gives an example of the continued development of drilling technology (specifically with respect to mechanization of pipe handling at the rig floor) throughout the years, starting from the 1970s.

    All drilling and production operations require a thorough understanding of the associated environmental aspects. Traditionally, the majority of accidents take place close to where drilling operations are carried out and in particular where heavy hardware components are to be maneuvered during tripping or make-up of downhole assemblies.

    A few years back, Norway initiated an investigation of situations where personnel safety was endangered. It was concluded that human work should be replaced by machines wherever the majority of accidents were proven to take place, e.g. in the vicinity of the borehole. This theory soon spread worldwide, first to deep-sea drilling rigs, and later to other drilling installations. Experience with automated systems quickly showed that not only safety is increased, but also the overall drilling time is reduced compared to manual operations. Additionally, automated systems to make- up Rotary shouldered connections are much more accurate than the traditional make-up with chains and rig tongs, thus reducing connections damage. State-of-the- art automated make-up devices also provide sufficient data to analyze the quality of the connection make-up, which can be used to increase the connections lifetime and reduce drill string failures.

    Drilling as well as production operations are an integral part of hydrocarbon exploitation as a whole, and therefore can not be studied in isolation. This is the reason behind the broad range of topics covered by the selected papers and reports.

  • 6

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  • 7

    2. Selected contributions to drilling, completion and workover

    The following topics have been selected for this habilitation synopsis. These topics cover drilling, completion and workover aspects of petroleum engineering with a special focus on equipment.

    • Evaluation of wire line drill pipe with double shoulder connections and suggestions for further improvements.

    • Study of the influence of contact pressure within the threaded turns and shoulder part of tool joints

    • Determination of the lifetime of casing couplings and development of an analytical solution

    • Testing of thread lubricants to enhance the seal capacity of API connections • Study of excessive loads on large size anchor pipe underneath the casing well

    head • Discussions of new developments in deep drilling • Multiphase flow with sand transport in horizontal pipes • Development of advanced testing facilities for multiphase flow investigations • Close view on the low recovery factor in many oil fields

    and discussions on possible improvements

    In what follows, an insight into the author’s work on stress/strain state in tubular goods, deep drilling technology and multiphase flow is presented.

    2.1. Advanced modeling of the stress/strain state in tubular goods

    The advances in petroleum technology are linked to advances in the fundamental sciences, such as mathematics, physics and material engineering. For example, the need to develop more resista

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